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INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. 207
which divides Kunawar from Tibet,, is 18,300. To the north,
the pass leading from Kunawar into Piti " the Hangarang,
14,800. Those to Upper Piti are much more lofty. • The bed
of the Satlej ascends from about 4000 feet in Lower Kuna-
war, to 8000 or 9000 feet at the upper extremity of the pro-
As a whole the province is very dry, compared with any
to- the southward and eastward of it, being intermediate in
this respect, as it is in geographical position, between the
Tibetan and Cis-Himalayan provinces, and its flora i& conse-
quently comparatively poor in number of species. Owing-^o
the dryness of its climate, Kunawar is sometimes selected as
a retreat from the rains of Simla; and the village of Chixri,
devated about 7000 feet, has thus been often visited. Plants
from this province and the adjacent districts of Tibet are fre-
quently said to be gathered in Chinese Tartary,—an unmean-
ing term, and one which should be disused in geographical
and botanical works. Owing to the rapid transition from the
climate of the humid parts of the Simla province to that of
Kunawar, we have few instances" to record of eastern, forms
finding their limits here: amongst which there are, perhaps,
Berbers aristata, Cassiope fastigiata, Potentilla jruticosa, P.
eriocarpa, and P. amUgua; and no doubt some others lurk in
the more humid and shaded situations.
On the other hand, many remarkable western and Siberian
forms make their appearance in Kunawar, which advance no
farther east. As—
Clematis parvifolia Quercus Hex*
Salk acuttfolia. Diantkus.
Alnus nitida. Paliurus
Pinus Gerardiaw. Eremurus JBieberstewii.
Whilst many species, which have been hitherto known only as
natives of the dry Tibetan climate at the heads of the Hira*-
layan rivers, become prevalent features in the flora.
The first remarkable local transition in the vegetation is